Friday, March 17, 2017

Microeconomics (2068Q4) What are the push and pull factors behind individual decision of poor Nepali worker's to go to foreign countries for employment?

Why Nepalese workers go for foreign employment? Reasons:

1.     Unemployment
2.     Poverty
3.     Political instability and conflict
4.     To pay back loans
5.     Desire to earn money
6.     To become self-reliant
7.     Desire to see new places
8.     To learn something new
9.     To fulfill family expectations

Pushing Factors

There are a lot of factors that compel the Nepalese workers to go foreign countries for employment. Some major pushing factors are as follows:-
1.     Wage rate / low pay
2.     Job availability / No guarantee
3.     Family expenses
4.     Favoritism
5.     Local agents

6. Insecurity
People who wants to work in home land they are suffering from insecurity of business and themselves too. Fearfulness of  demand of donation by political parties, unions and other groups has made difficult to work. The basic needs for work environment hasn't prepared by the government. So its insecure to work in homeland.

7. Political instability and conflict
The unstable political situation has made critical situation for work environment. Nepal Bandas, strikes by different parties, unions, groups has inversely effect the chances of employment in home country.

8. Poverty
9. Lack of basic foundations for working environment
10. Poor law and order
11. Lack of employment opportunities
12. To pay back loans
13. Desire to earn money
14. To become self-reliant
15. Desire to see new places
16. To learn something new
17. To fulfill family expectations

Pulling Factors

1.     Better employment opportunities
2.     Attractive salary
3.     Earning money
4.     Job guarantee
Information from partners working abroad

Microeconomics (2068Q3) How do prices of (i) goods and services, (ii) labour, (iii) capital, (iv) entrepreneurship, and (v) foreign exchange interact with each other? Inter-relate it.

The factors of production such as labour, capital and entrepreneurship resources are inputs to produce output goods and services. The changes on foreign exchange impacts to goods and services, labour, capital and entrepreneurship resources too.

i. Goods and services:
Goods and services are the output of production of any firm. The ideal combination of inputs like as land (fixed input) and variable inputs (labour, capital, entrepreneurship) can product optimum output. So, the efficient production of goods and services are highly dependent of factors of production.

If market prices rise, incentives are created for producers to supply more to the consumers. If prices fall, there are incentives to produce less. Similarly, with consumers, high prices create incentives to buy less, while low prices create incentives to buy more.

ii. Labour:
It is one of an important production factor. Skillful labour are needed to maximize the production. The skills, knowledge and talents of people can be improved or made more productive through education and training. Labour is directed proportional to output as well as cost of production. So, optimum number of labours should used for production.

iii. Capital:
Capital consists of tools, equipment, machines and buildings that producers use to produce something else. High capital leads high production and less need of labours.

iv. Entrepreneurship:
Well combination of entrepreneurship in business improve in high production in low cost.

v. Foreign exchange:
 Besides among factor, foreign exchange also impacts on cost of output and production cost of any goods and services. If native currency is cheaper then cost of production will low and vice versa. Hence if cost of production is lower, then market price of goods and services will also low that means the goods can compete in the global market.

Microeconomics (2068Q2) Q2. On the basis of your understanding why private transporters' syndication/controlling is thriving in Nepal?


Over the last decade, the syndication has emerged as the one of the most problem in domestic transport system affecting the private sectors and consumers. This syndicate lobby is such a powerful that it has knocked down each and every attempts of government to abolish the anti-competitive practices. The private transporters syndicate association has control prices, keep big price margins, have greater authority and claim big piece of the pie in the market. In a free competitive market, syndicates are illegal and lethal (घातक). Moreover, in Nepal, Competition and Market Protection Act 2063 recognizes that syndication as an anti-competitive practice, defining it as illegal and punishable.

Reasons that private transporters syndication / controlling is thriving in Nepal

1.     The government can't forcefully implement our laws and practices upon the private transporters syndication.
2.      The government hasn't any measures to counterpart the syndication of private transporters by transporting petroleum and LP gas by govt. and other party's tanks.
3.     The government can't pierce the powerful nexus of private transporters syndicate and private transporters syndicate is also back supported by some politicians.

Possible efforts to solve syndication:

1.     Government first should make alternative of private transportation of petroleum and LP gas. Then government must present strongly with private transporter to draw them into law and order.
2.     Politician shouldn't look after their personal/organization benefits. They must be aware upon the citizens problem and the national problems.
Consumers and the associations of consumers should alert, aware and consolidate upon these issues and should fight against the syndication by boycotting their petroleum products.

Microeconomics (2068Q1) Why long-run average cost curves are 'L' shaped instead of 'U' shape? Discuss.

Normally the long-run average cost curve (LAC) is U-shaped but the empirical study has found that LAC is L-shaped. Technological progress along with sustainable production practice enables the firm to maintain the cost of production at a minimum level in the long run. This makes the LAC curve first to fall and then remain flat which makes it L-shaped. When output increases, LAC first diminishes at a faster rate and become flat as the output reaches its optimum level.

Following are the reasons that justify long-run average cost curves are L-shaped instead of U-shaped:-

1. Specialization:
Initially workers take comparatively longer time to perform a given task but their speed increases as they are involve in the same job again and again because of the specialization.

2. Learning by Doing:
With the continuous involvement of the producer of the entrepreneur in the production, his efficiency goes on increasing i.e. his bargaining capacity, coordination etc improve and hence cost of production goes on declining.
3. Improvement in Technology:
With the passage of time, technology goes on improving which helps to reduce the cost of production sharply in the beginning and after reaching certain level, the rate of decrease in cost is insignificant.

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Microeconomics (2066Q1 Detail): Distinguish between inductive and deductive methods in economics. Which method, in your opinion, is more appropriate in microeconomics? Why?

Methods of Economic Analysis:

An economic theory derives laws or generalizations through two methods:

(1) Deductive Method and
(2) Inductive Method

These two ways of deriving economic generalizations are now explained in brief:

The deductive method is also named as analytical, abstract or prior method. The deductive method consists in deriving conclusions from general truths, takes few general principles and applies them draw conclusions.

For instance, if we accept the general proposition that man is entirely motivated by self-interest. In applying the deductive method of economic analysis, we proceed from general to particular.

The classical and neo-classical school of economists notably, Ricardo, Senior, Cairnes, J.S. Mill, Malthus, Marshall, Pigou, applied the deductive method in their economic investigations.

The main steps involved in deductive logic are as under:

(i) Perception of the problem to be inquired into: In the process of deriving economic generalizations, the analyst must have a clear and precise idea of the problem to be inquired into.

(ii) Defining of terms: The next step in this direction is to define clearly the technical terms used analysis. Further, assumptions made for a theory should also be precise.

(iii) Deducing hypothesis from the assumptions: The third step in deriving generalizations is deducing hypothesis from the assumptions taken.

(iv) Testing of hypothesis: Before establishing laws or generalizations, hypothesis should be verified through direct observations of events in the rear world and through statistical methods. (Their inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded of a good is a well established generalization).

(2) Inductive Method of Economic Analysis:

Inductive method which also called empirical method was adopted by the "Historical School of Economists". It involves the process of reasoning from particular facts to general principle.

This method derives economic generalizations on the basis of (i) Experimentation (ii) Observations and (iii) Statistical methods.

In this method, data is collected about a certain economic phenomenon. These are systematically arranged and the general conclusions are drawn from them.

For example, we observe 200 persons in the market. We find that nearly 195 persons buy from the cheapest shops, Out of the 5 which remains, 4 persons buy local products even at higher rate just to patronize their own products, while the fifth is a fool. From this observation, we can easily draw conclusions that people like to buy from a cheaper shop unless they are guided by patriotism or they are devoid of commonsense.

The main steps involved in the application of inductive method are:
(i) Observation.
(ii) Formation of hypothesis.
(iii) Generalization.
(iv) Verification.

Thursday, March 9, 2017

Computer: How Benchmarking is applicable for a BPR project?

                 There are different types of benchmarking:
a)      Strategic benchmarking
b)      Performance or Competitive benchmarking
c)      Process benchmarking
d)      Functional benchmarking or Generic benchmarking
e)      Internal benchmarking
f)       External benchmarking
g)      International benchmarking

Different benchmarking framework/models are as follows:
·         Identify the process
·         Scope process and team
·         Map, understand and analyze process
·         Refine process; change the obvious
·         Design benchmarking study
·         Collect information
·         Analyse study results
·         Design and implement improved processes

IQ: Category-wise top keywords searched in Google in year 2016

The google top keywords searches are listed as following sub-headings:

Category: Searches

  1. Pokemon Go
  2. iPhone 7
  3. Donald Trump
  4. Prince
  5. Powerball

Category: Global News

  1. US Election
  2. Olympics
  3. Brexit
  4. Orlando Shooting
  5. Zika Virus

Category: People

  1. Donald Trump
  2. Hillary Clinton
  3. Michael Phelps
  4. Melania Trump
  5. Simone Biles

Category: Global Sporting Events

  1. Rio Olympics
  2. World Series
  3. Tour de France
  4. Wimbledon
  5. Australian Open

Category: Movies

  1. Deadpool
  2. Suicide Squad
  3. The Revenant
  4. Captain America Civil War
  5. Batman v Superman

Category: TV Shows

  1. Stranger Things
  2. Westworld
  3. Luke Cage
  4. Game of Thrones
  5. Black Mirror

Category: Consumer Tech

  1. iPhone
  2. Freedom 251
  3. iPhone SE
  4. iPhone 6S
  5. Google Pixel

Category: Musicians

  1. Celine Dion
  2. Kesha
  3. Michael Buble
  4. Creed
  5. Dean Fujioka
(Reference: Google Trends)

Tuesday, March 7, 2017

New asteroids find out by Nepali team


Recently, Nepalese team succeeded to find out new asteroids in Solar System. They have given names of asteroids – P-10 YLF 9, P-10 YKXH, P-10 YKZ 5, P-10 YOPZ, P-10 YOQ and P-10 YPZ. These names will be renamed by Hawaii University and NASA. The participating teams were provided the photos that were taken by the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) based in Hawaii, USA along with necessary software and instructions.

The teams found nine asteroids based on the photos and sent it to the US mainland. It will take a few years for the research to be verified. The students from Celebration Co-Ed School in Kathmandu, teachers and students from Pokhara’s Prithvinarayan Campus, and club members from Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) took part in the search campaign.

The participating teams had analyzed 180,000 moving masses of rock in the data provided by Pan-STARRS which currently operates two telescopes of 1.8 meters.

Analysis and Way Forward

Government of Nepal and private sector of Nepal should focus on fostering the talent of Nepalese young scientist for more rigorous research. Government should provide adequate platform, budget, programs and environment to develop science and technology including meteorology in Nepal. Moreover Government should support the plan from Nepali enthusiastic such as Mahabir Pun for the development of  Science and Technology as well as new innovation. Furthermore Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) should keenly pay attention upon this finding new asteroids for further enhancement of sustainable innovation by Nepali scientists. 

Computer: Differentiate between software verification and validation. Show similarity between software verification and validation.

             Software Verification
             Software Validation
Are we building the system right?
Are we building the right system?
Verification is the process of evaluating products of a development phase to find out whether they meet the specified requirements.
Validation is the process of evaluating software at the end of the development process to determine whether software meets the customer expectations and requirements.
The objective of Verification is to make sure that the product being develop is as per the requirements and design specifications.
The objective of Validation is to make sure that the product actually meet up the user’s requirements, and check whether the specifications were correct in the first place.
Following activities are involved in Verification: Reviews, Meetings and Inspections.
Following activities are involved in Validation: Testing like black box testing, white box testing, gray box testing etc.
Verification is carried out by QA team to check whether implementation software is as per specification document or not.
Validation is carried out by testing team.
Execution of code is not comes underVerification.
Execution of code is comes under Validation.
Verification process explains whether the outputs are according to inputs or not.
Validation process describes whether the software is accepted by the user or not.
Verification is carried out before the Validation.
Validation activity is carried out just after the Verification.
Following items are evaluated duringVerification: Plans, Requirement Specifications, Design Specifications, Code, Test Cases etc,
Following item is evaluated during Validation: Actual product or Software under test.
Cost of errors caught in Verification is less than errors found in Validation.
Cost of errors caught in Validation is more than errors found in Verification.
It is basically manually checking the of documents and files like requirement specifications etc.
It is basically checking of developed program based on the requirement specifications documents & files.

In case of Software Testing, both Software Verificationa and Software Testing has following similarities:

  1. Both verification and validation are essential and balancing to each other.
  2. Different error filters are provided by each of them.
  3. Both are used to find a defect in different ways, Verification is used to identify the errors in requirement specification and Validation is used to find the defects in the implemented software application.

Sunday, March 5, 2017

Computer: Q. Explain the organization structure, its functions and duties of National Information Technology Center (NITC).

National Information Technology center (NITC) was established in the year 2002 in line with IT Policy 2002 as a premier organization of Nepal Government in ICT sector situated in Singhadurbar, Kathmandu. Being an implementing agency for Government of Nepal, NITC acts as a focal point for implementation of government e-Services. Having a data center of its own, it provides a one- stop solution for server co-location for government agencies with its government network as a backbone. Providing e-services (e.g. Business License portal, E-Gatepass system, E- procurement etc.), hosting the government websites, managing mail servers and government’s domain registration service are among the many critical services NITC is responsible for.

NITC focuses on technology enabled applications to bridge digital divide and ultimately to overcome monumental challenges in development of e-Governance. It has vast expertise and experience in the design and development of various e-Government projects. NITC functions as a focal point for development and implementation of e-Governance applications such as National Portal, Groupware, EA, GIDC, NID, PKI, e-Fax, e-Vehicle, e-Drivers License, e-Land, Passport Management, BRAMS, etc to deliver citizen centric services which have laid the foundation and provide the impetus for long-term growth of e-Governance. NITC provides consulting and training services as well to the other government agencies in the field of Information technology. Besides, it helps the agencies to develop and maintain their IT system in compliance with Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA) and Government Interoperability Framework (NeGIF). Finally, NITC aims to make Nepal global IT hub and enhance transparency, accountability, efficiency, and reliability in Government and in delivery of public services.

Organizational Structure of NITC
Board of NITC includes the following  9 members:
1.      Secretary, MoSTE                                     - Chairman
2.      Executive Director, NITC                          - Member Secretary
3.      Joint-Secretary, MoF                                 - Member
4.      Joint-Secretary, NPC                                 - Member
5.      Joint-Secretary, MoIC                               - Member
6.      Representative, FNCCI                              - Member
7.      2 Representative from expert                  - Member
8.      Representative from University               - Member

Functions and Duties of NITC
·         Render Assistance in all kinds of computer related services of Nepal Government.
·         Serve as data depository by collecting all types of data at the national level.
·         Act as data bank of Information and assist in computerization of records in government offices and in developing and expanding contents.
·         Act as a regulator for the healthy development of Information Technology.
Arrange Coding and Standardization methodology required to bring about uniformity in all aspect of Information Technology with through implementation and monitoring of the same.

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